Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

Production of fuel additives by direct conversion of softwood bark using a cheap metal salt

Abstract : Levulinates are used as oxygenated fuel additives or as blending components in biodiesel. A metal salt was used for the direct conversion of real biomass, ie. softwood bark, to produce methyl levulinate (ML) and levulinic acid (LA). The experimental data were analyzed through response surface methodology (RSM), using a central composite design (CCD). Three dependent responses (ML yield, LA yield, and residue production) were studied to determine the optimum combination of the four factors. The total yield of levulinates was 62% at the optimum process parameters, including acid concentration (0.067 mol/L), reaction time (5.67 h), and softwood bark concentration (2.5% wt.) at 200 °C. Finally, the results showed that Al2(SO4)3 allowed the production of levulinates for its good BrØnsted/Lewis acidity, but also permitted a decrease in corrosion inside the reactor (as compared to homogeneous acids such as H2SO4). This shows that the use of these metal salts for this specific application could positively affect production costs (either CAPEX or OPEX) on a larger scale.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata

Cited literature [44 references]  Display  Hide  Download
Contributor : IMT Mines Albi IMT Mines Albi Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, October 9, 2020 - 9:43:32 AM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 11:43:49 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Sunday, January 10, 2021 - 6:17:38 PM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive



Maricelly Martínez Aguilar, Xavier Duret, Thierry Ghislain, Doan Pham Minh, Ange Nzihou, et al.. Production of fuel additives by direct conversion of softwood bark using a cheap metal salt. Energy Conversion and Management, Elsevier, 2021, 10, pp.1-9/100049. ⟨10.1016/j.ecmx.2020.100049⟩. ⟨hal-02893863⟩



Record views


Files downloads