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A correlation between tribological behavior and crystal structure of cobalt-based hardfacings

Abstract : This paper deals with the influence of the mechanisms of plasticity on the evolution of the friction coefficient in cobalt-based hardfacings. Particularly depending on the alloying element content and so on the stacking fault energy, plasticity in Co-based alloys may occur through mechanisms involving either perfect dislocations gliding and/or partial dislocation gliding. As the coalescence of stacking faults by partial dislocations promotes the phase transformation of the Co, this study focus on the impact of this phase transformation on the evolution of the friction coefficient. Stellite 21 (Co-27Cr-5Mo-0.25C) hardfacings deposited on a steel substrate by two different processes, namely metal inert gas (MIG) and laser, are studied. The tribological properties are evaluated with a ring on disc tribometer under high load (800 daN) and continuous sliding (5 mm/s) at room and high temperatures (450 °C and 600 °C). The wear volume is characterized by confocal microscope. From micro-hardness measurements and SEM observations the work-hardening and the plastic strain of the Tribological Transformations of Surfaces are identified in relationship with chemical analysis (by EDS). Moreover X-rays diffraction and EBSD reveal the crystal structure evolution. As-deposited Co-based hardfacings have a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. Meanwhile depending on the process of deposition on the steel substrate, the nominal composition of the Stellite 21 can be modified due to dilution effect. So, the iron content is found to be higher in the MIG hardfacing than in the laser one, leading to different mechanisms of plasticity, respectively by perfect dislocations gliding and by phase transformation (FCC to hexagonal closed-packed (HCP)). Moreover, a significant influence of the phase transformation on the friction coefficient has been evidenced: without phase transformation the cobalt remains in the FCC structure and the friction coefficient is stable during the test, while a decrease of its value occurs during the FCC to HCP phase transformation.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 6, 2019 - 4:37:46 PM
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E. Cabrol, Christine Boher, Vanessa Vidal, Farhad Rezai-Aria, F. Touratier. A correlation between tribological behavior and crystal structure of cobalt-based hardfacings. Wear, Elsevier, 2019, 426-427 (Part B), pp.996-1007. ⟨10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.091⟩. ⟨hal-02100676⟩



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