Cocoa Butter Saturated with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Measurements and Modelling of Solubility, Volumetric Expansion, Density and Viscosity

Abstract : The use of supercritical carbon dioxide technology for lipid processing has recently developed at the expense of traditional processes. For designing new processes the knowledge of thermophysical properties is a prerequisite. This work is focused on the characterization of physical and thermodynamic properties of CO2-cocoa butter (CB) saturated mixture. Measurements of density, volumetric expansion, viscosity and CO2 solubility were carried out on CB-rich phase at 313 and 353 K and pressures up to 40 MPa. The experimental techniques have previously been compared and validated. Density measurements of CB and CB saturated with CO2, were performed using the vibrating tube technology at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 25 MPa. Experimental values correlated well with the modified Tait equation. CO2 solubility measurements were coupled to those of density in the same pressures ranges. At 25 MPa, the solubility of CO2 is 31.4 % and 28.7 % at 313 and 353 K. Phase behaviour was investigated using a view cell in order to follow the expansion of the CB-rich phase with the rise in pressure. Volumetric expansion up to 47 % was measured and correlated to the CO2 solubility. Phase inversion was observed at 313 K and 40 MPa. Lastly, we developed an innovative falling ball viscometer for high pressure measurements. Viscosity measurements were carried out up to 25 MPa showing a viscosity reduction up to 90 % upon CO2 dissolution. These results were correlated with two empirical models. A new model here presented, was favourably compared with the Grunberg and Nissan model. All the experimental results are consistent with the available literature data for the CB-CO2 mixture and other fat systems. This work is a new contribution to the characterization of physical and thermodynamic behaviour of fats in contact with CO2 which is necessary to design supercritical fluid processes for fats processing.
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Brice Calvignac, Élisabeth Rodier, Jean‐jacques Letourneau, Pedro Miguel Almeida dos Santos, Jacques Fages. Cocoa Butter Saturated with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Measurements and Modelling of Solubility, Volumetric Expansion, Density and Viscosity. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, De Gruyter, 2010, 8 (1), pp.A73. ⟨10.2202/1542-6580.2191⟩. ⟨hal-01142083⟩

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