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Notation et processus outillé pour la description, l'analyse et la compréhension de l'automatisation dans les systèmes de commande et contrôle

Elodie Bouzekri 1
1 IRIT-ICS - Interactive Critical Systems
IRIT - Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse
Abstract : Automation enables systems to execute some functions without outside control and to adapt functions they execute to new contexts and goals. Systems with automation are used more and more to help humans in everyday tasks with, for example, the dishwasher. Systems with automation are also used to help humans in their professional life. For example, in the field of aeronautics, automation has gradually reduced the number from 4 pilots to 2 pilots. Automation was first considered as a way to increase performance and reduce effort by migrating tasks previously allocated to humans to systems. This, in the hypothesis that systems would be better than humans would at performing certain tasks and vice-versa. Paul Fitts proposed MABA-MABA (Machine Are Better At - Man Are Better At), a tasks and functions allocation method based on this hypothesis. In line with this hypothesis, various descriptions of levels of automation have been proposed. The 10 levels of Automation (LoA) by Parasuraman, Sheridan et Wickens describe different tasks and functions allocations between the human and the system. The higher the level of automation, the more tasks migrate from human to system. These approaches have been the subject of criticism. " MABA-MABA or Abracadabra? Progress on Human-Automation Coordination " of Dekker and Woods highlights that automation leads to new tasks allocated to humans to manage this automation. Moreover, they recall that these approaches hide the cooperative aspect of the human-system couple. To characterize the human-system cooperation, the importance of considering, at design time, the allocation of authority, responsibility, control and the initiative to modify these allocations during the activity was demonstrated. However, the existing approaches describe a high-level design of automation and cooperation early in the design and development process. These approaches do not provide support for reasoning about the allocation of resources, control transitions, responsibility and authority throughout the design and development process. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the possibility to analyze and describe at a low-level tasks and functions as well as the cooperation between humans and the system with automation. This analysis and this description enable to characterize tasks, functions and the cooperation in terms of authority, responsibility, resource sharing and control transition initiation. The aim of this work is to provide a framework and a model-based and tool supported process to analyze and understand automation. In order to show the feasibility of this approach, this thesis presents the results of the application of the proposed process to an industrial case study in the field of aeronautics.
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Elodie Bouzekri. Notation et processus outillé pour la description, l'analyse et la compréhension de l'automatisation dans les systèmes de commande et contrôle. Automatique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021TOU30003⟩. ⟨tel-03208713⟩

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